Avian, swine and other zoonotic influenza virus infections in humans may cause disease ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection fever and coughearly sputum production and rapid progression to severe pneumonia, sepsis with shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome and even death.
Presence of co-infection with bacterial pathogens can be encountered in critically ill patients. However, given the significant mortality currently associated with A H5 and A H7N9 subtype virus infections and evidence of prolonged viral replication in these diseases, administration of the drug should also be considered in patients presenting later in the course of illness.
H hemagglutinin N neuraminidase There are 16 possible H antigens and 9 possible N antigens. Travelers to countries and people living in countries with known outbreaks of avian influenza should, if possible, avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live poultry markets, entering areas where poultry may be slaughtered, and contact with any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with faeces from poultry or other animals.
Pandemic potential Influenza pandemics are epidemics that affect a large proportion of the world due to a novel virus. However, avian influenza A viruses are very contagious among birds, and some of these viruses can sicken and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys.
If you do visit another farm or live bird market, change footwear and clothing before working with your own flock.
So far there are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes. Poultry Monitoring and Surveillance Plans Web site. Corticosteroids should not be used routinely, unless indicated for other reasons eg: The natural reservoir for Type A influenza viruses is wild water birds such as ducks and geese.
If you do need to dispose of a dead bird, use gloves or a plastic bag turned inside out over your hand to pick up the bird, double bag it, and either bury it or dispose of it in the trash. Conjunctivitis reportedly has been associated with the virus, as well. Influenza type A viruses are classified into subtypes according to the combinations of different virus surface proteins hemagglutinin HA and neuraminidase NA.
Additional requirements and recommendations apply for laboratory work involving live animals.
Therefore, new strains can occur naturally at any time within avian hosts. Therefore, it is important not to consume raw or partially cooked eggs i. Viruses that cause severe disease in poultry and result in high death rates are called highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI.
Both registered and exempt laboratories that identify a Select Agent contained in a specimen presented for diagnosis, verification, or proficiency testing must secure the agent against theft, loss, or release until transfer or destruction. A human flu pandemic could however arise from a different source and happen at any time.
Is there a risk in handling feather products that come from countries experiencing outbreaks of avian influenza A H5N1. There may be specific requirements regarding the setting of containment levels in institutions that are subject to NIH guidelines. Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people.
Commercially available RDTs in general cannot provide subtype information. To minimize public health risk, quality surveillance in both animal and human populations, thorough investigation of every human infection and risk-based pandemic planning are essential.
It may be controlled by quarantine, destruction of affected flocks or, in some circumstances, by vaccination. For human infections with swine influenza viruses, most cases have been mild with a few cases hospitalized and very few reports of deaths resulting from infection.
When farmed poultry are confirmed as having the virus, the farm will cull the birds. Most human infections with avian influenza A viruses have occurred following direct or close contact with infected poultry.
November [ edit ] In the Netherlands, H5N8 was found in wild birds and birds in a zoo and on 26 November,ducks were destroyed at six farms. Avian influenza is a virus that affects bird populations. There are many different strains of avian influenza that cause varying degrees of illness in birds.
The most common types of avian influenza are routinely detected in wild birds and cause little concern. Highly pathogenic strains of avian.
Infection of poultry with influenza A subtype H7 viruses occurs worldwide, but the introduction of this subtype to humans in Asia has not been observed previously. In Marchthree urban. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a zoonotic notifiable disease that can cause high mortality rates in most domestic poultry and in some wild bird species.
SinceHPAI H5 viruses have been circulating in poultry in many countries. Avian influenza (bird flu) mainly affects birds.
It can also affect humans and other mammals.
Bird flu is a notifiable animal disease. If you suspect any type of. H5N8 is a subtype of the Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). Although H5N8 is considered one of the less pathogenic subtypes for humans, it is beginning to become more pathogenic.
H5N8 has previously been used in place of the highly pathogenic H1N1 in studies. WHO fact sheet on avian influenza: includes key facts, definition, clinical features, antiviral treatment, risk factors for human infection, human pandemic potential, WHO .Avian influenza